National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
EZIPs
TaxonomySpeciesClostridium botulinum (toxins)
CategoryBacteria
GenusClostridium
FamilyClostridiaceae
Order/ClassClostridiales
PhylumFirmicutes
Human and animal diseaseHuman diseaseBotulism
Predominant syndromeNeurological
Occ. risk groupn/a
Incubation timehours
Disease in farm animalsYes
Disease in pets and horsesNo
Disease in wildlifeYes
Specfic animal speciesAll mammals, birds, fishes
ReservoirsHumansNo
Farm animalsYes
Pets and horsesNo
WildlifeYes
Specific animal speciesFish, also in ground
TransmissionHuman to humanNo
SkinNo
Tissue/blood: ArthropodsNo
Tissue/blood: Invasive actionsNo
Secreta/excreta: AirNo
Secreta/excreta: Water/food/environmentYes
Secreta/excreta: Close animal contactNo
Transmission infoFood
Geographic distributionNetherlandsYes
EuropeYes
AfricaYes
North AmericaYes
South AmericaYes
AustraliaYes
AsiaYes
Distribution infoWorldwide
InfoSpecifics
Human ref. website URL
Animal ref. website URL
  Value Normalised valueWeightScore
1Probability of introduction into the Netherlands100% 10,4180,42
2Transmission in animal reservoirs0,005% 0,390,2920,11
3Economic damage, animal reservoirs0,5M€ 00,3370
4Animal-human transmission0,005% 00,6260
5Human-human transmission0% 00,3390
6Morbidity0,2 0,590,1810,11
7Mortality5% 0,810,6430,52
 Total    1,16
 Normalised score    0,46