National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
EZIPs
TaxonomySpeciesClostridium difficile
CategoryBacteria
GenusClostridium
FamilyClostridiaceae
Order/ClassClostridiales
PhylumFirmicutes
Human and animal diseaseHuman diseaseClostridium difficile associated disease
Predominant syndromeGastro-intestinal
Occ. risk groupn/a
Incubation timedays to weeks
Disease in farm animalsYes
Disease in pets and horsesUnknown
Disease in wildlifeUnknown
Specfic animal speciesPigs, ruminants
ReservoirsHumansYes
Farm animalsYes
Pets and horsesYes
WildlifeYes
Specific animal speciesEnviron. commensal in some people
TransmissionHuman to humanYes
SkinNo
Tissue/blood: ArthropodsNo
Tissue/blood: Invasive actionsNo
Secreta/excreta: AirNo
Secreta/excreta: Water/food/environmentYes
Secreta/excreta: Close animal contactNo
Transmission infoAntibiotica triggered, fecal route
Geographic distributionNetherlandsYes
EuropeYes
AfricaUnknown
North AmericaYes
South AmericaUnknown
AustraliaYes
AsiaYes
Distribution infoWorldwid
InfoSpecifics
Human ref. website URL
Animal ref. website URL
  Value Normalised valueWeightScore
1Probability of introduction into the Netherlands100% 10,4180,42
2Transmission in animal reservoirs0,005% 0,390,2920,11
3Economic damage, animal reservoirs5M€ 0,30,3370,1
4Animal-human transmission0,005% 00,6260
5Human-human transmission0% 00,3390
6Morbidity0,06 0,280,1810,05
7Mortality0% 00,6430
 Total    0,68
 Normalised score    0,27